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the GASTROLAB Digestive Dictionary
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F (U) Farad
Faecal incontinenceInvoluntary rectal emtying. According to severity faecal incontinence can be grouped into three groups: Grade I: Involuntary flatus, Grade II: Inabilitys to hold back liquid and Grade III: Inability to hold back solid stool.
Faeces in the Sigmoid Colon
Faeces is the solid waste material of the body. In the first part of the colon the bowel content is loose, but during the passage through the colon excessive water is absorbed, and the faeces becomes solid before being evacuated through the anal canal. Faeces is composed of undigested parts of the food (mostly cellulose), a lot of bacteria (many of them important to the human producing vitamin K), various secretions (mucus), bile pigments (which give faeces its typical brown colour) and water. During colonoscopy images like these are seldom seen, as the bowel is cleaned before the examination.
Faecal calprotectin A biological marker of colonic inflammation, used in the diagnosis and follow-up of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases|
Fahrenheit thermometer A method of measuring temperature. In Fahrenheit the freezing point of water is 32 degrees, boiling point of water 212 degrees and normal body temperature 98.4 degrees Celcius. To find degrees in the Celsius scale, one should substract 32 from the Fahrenheit degrees and divide the rest by 1.8. To find degrees in Fahrenheit, the Celsius degrees should be multiplied by 1.8 and 32 added.
Hundreds of adenomas in a colectomy specimen from a patient with FAP
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) is a genetic disease with autosomal dominant inheritance. The typical finding in this disease is hundreds of polyps, adenomas, in the large bowel, starting to appear in young age. Some of these adenomas develops to a malignant large bowel tumour, colon cancer in a mean age of about 40. Prophylactic colectomy is indicated, and usually done before the age of 25. Surveillance of near relatives is obligatory. Every second child of a patient with FAP gets the disease due to the type of inheritance. FAP patients can get extracolonic cancer (often in the duodenum) and can have other extraintestinal manifestations of the disease, desmoid tumours and bone abnormalities.|
Familial hyperbilirubinemias There are five familial hyperbilirubinemias. In three of them the hyperbilirubinemia is unconjugated (Gilbet´s syndrome, Crigler-Najjar type I and type II) and in two the hyperbilirubinemia is of conjucated type (Dubin-Johnson syndrome, Rotor syndrome).|
FAP (Abbr) See Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) a test of blood invisible to the eye in the stool. This test is often used as a screening test for colorectal cancer.
Feces See Faeces
FFA (Abbr) Free fatty acids
Fissura Cleft of groove
Fissura in ano Anal fissure
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis´syndrome See perihepatitis
Fitz´s syndrome A syndrome caused by an acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis published in 1889 by R. Fitz
Flatulence Excess flatus or gas
Flatus Voiding of gas through the anal canal
Flexura coli dextra Right colic flexure
Flexura coli sinistra Left colic flexure
Flexura hepatis See right colic flexure
Flexura lienalis See left colic flexure
FOBT Fecal occult blood test, a test of blood invisible to the eye in the stool. This test is often used as a screening test for colorectal cancer.
Foetor Bad smell
Foetor ex ore Bad breath "from the mouth"
Foetor hepaticus Bad smell in the breath due to a severe hepatic disease
Foot Linear measure, measuring length. 1 foot is 0.3048 meters. 1 m is 3.281 feet.
A foreign body, a coin, in the stomach
Foreign body (Corpus alienum) An object in a place where it should not normally be. A coin or a small toy swallowed by a child is a typical foreign body. An object swallowed ofted departs from the gastrointestal channel by the normal route, bigger objects can be removed endoscopically. Small batteries used in electronic toys are dangerous especially if the remain in the oesophagus, and they should be removed immediately, othervise they can cause serious burns.|
A gastric ulcer with a Forrest IIc lesion
Forrest Classification Peptic ulcer disease is the most common cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The endoscopic finding can give valuable information about the risk of rebleeding after hospital admission. Endoscopic signs indicating risk of rebleeding were classified in 1974 by Forrest et al (Forrest JA, Finlayson ND, Shearman DJ. Endoscopy in gastrointestinal bleeding. Lancet 1974;17:394-397). The classification is as follow:|
|Type of lesion:|
Arterial spurting bleeding
Arterial oozing bleeding
Hematin covered flat spot
No stigmata of hemorrhage
|Risk of rebleeding if untreated:|
55% (17 - 100%)
22% (14 - 36%
10% (0 - 13%)
5% (0 - 10%)
Fulminant (Adj) Describing a disease or a symptom which has an acute and very severe onset.
Fulminant hepatic failure A term introduced by Trey and Davidson in 1970 describing an acute liver failure complicated by hepatic encephalopathy within 8 weeks of the onset of the disease. In subfulminant hepatic failure the encephalopathy develop within up to 6 months after the onset of the disease
Functional Chest Pain of Presumed Oesophageal Origin A functional gastrointestinal disorder, causing chest pain similar to chest pain due to coronary heart disease. The Rome II diagnostic criteria for this disorder are: At least 12 weeks, which need not be consecutive, within the preceding 12 months of: 1. Midline chest pain or discomfort that is not of burning quality; 2. Absence of pathologic gastro-oesophageal reflux, achalasia or other recognized disorder.
Functional constipation A functional gastrointestinal disorder. The Rome II diagnostic criteria for this disorder are: At least 12 weeks, which need not be consecutive, in the preceding 12 months of two or more of: 1. Straining > 1/4 of defecations; 2. Lumpy or hard stools > 1/4 of defecations; 3. Sensation of incomplete evacuation > 1/4 of defecations; 4. Sensation of anorectal obstruction/blockage > 1/4 of defecations; 5. Manual maneuvers to facilitate > 1/4 of defecations; 6. Less than 3 defecations per week.
Functional diarrhea in childhoodA functional gastrointestinal disorder, allso called Toddler´s Diarrhea, chronic nonspecific diarrhea, irritable colon of childhood. The diagnostic criteria according to the Rome II Criteria are: For more than 4 weeks, daily painless, recurrent passage of 3 or more large, unformed stools, in addition to all these characteristics: 1. Onset of symoptoms begins between 6 and 36 months of age; 2. Passage of stools occurs during waking hours; 3. There is no failure-to-thrive if caloric intake is adequate
Functional dysphagia A functional gastrointestinal disorder causing swallowing difficulties. The Rome II diagnostic criteria for this disorder are: At least 12 weeks, which need not be consecutive, in the preceding 12 months of 1. Sense of solid and/or liquid foods sticking, lodging, or passing abnormally through the oesophagus; 2. Absence of pathological gastro-oesophageal reflux, achalasia or any other recognized motility disorder.
Functional gastrointestinal disorders Chronic or recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms which are not explained by any organic (structural or biochemical) abnormality.
Functional Heartburn A functional gastrointestinal disorder, causing symptoms similar to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. The Rome II diagnostic criteria for this disorder are: At least 12 weeks, which need not be consecutive, in the preceding 12 months of: 1. Burning retrosternal discomfort or pain; 2. Absence of pathologic gastro-oesophageal reflux, achalasia or any other recognized disorder.
Functional vomiting A functional gastrointestinal disorder. The Rome II diagnostic criteria for this disorder are: At least 12 weeks, which need not be consecutive. in the preceding 12 months of 1. Frequent episodes of vomiting, occurring on at last three separate days in a week over three months; 2. Absecnce of criteria for an eating disorder, rumination or major psychiatric disease; 3. Absence of self-induced and medication-induced vomiting; 4. Absence of abnormalities in the gut or central nervous system, and metabolic disorders to explain the recurrent vomiting.
The upper part of the stomach after a fundoplication
Fundoplication A surgical therapy for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, used if the patient does not like the idea of using medical therapy for a long time or if medical therapy lacks sufficient effect. In a fundoplication the upper part of the stomach is wrapped around a part of or all of the lower oesophagus. There are several techiques, the one best known si the Nissen funcoplicatio introduces by a Swiss Surgeon, Rudolf Nissen, in the 1950´ies. Other techniques are the Belsey plastia, the Toupet fundoplication and the Hill procedure. Fundoplications can now be done laparoscopically.
Fungus balls Yeast bezoar, a peristent foreign body, bezoar, in the stomach consisting of yeast. A yeast bezoar is a rare complication of gastric surgery. See Bezoar.
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